World Osteoporosis Day observed on October 20 in every year. It is a great day to learn more things about our health.
World Osteoporosis Day
Get inspire and Celebrate World Osteoporosis Day and educate yourself and others about the value of taking care of body muscles and protecting bones from disabling and make awareness.
Special Event: World Osteoporosis Day
Date: October 20
World Osteoporosis Day – October 20, 2019
Eat seasonal fruits, eat vegetables and time to sleep& time to wake up, time to eat, and don’t get stress, do yoga, meditations, light aerobic exercise all these activities must help keep health. Sun light is great natural source to get vitamin D, very important.
Osteo means bones and porosis mean pores. Poros in bones, a higher break down of bone comparison to the formation of new bone which results in Porous bones, meaning a decrease in bone density to the point of potential fracture.
Looking at a Cross-Sectional of bone, there is a hard-external layer known as the cortical and softer internal layer of spongy bone or trabecular bone is composed of trabeculae are like a famwork of beams that give structural support to the spongy bone.
The cortical bone made of many functional, pipe like units called Osteons, which run through the length of bone.in the center of these osteons.
Image source :Osmosis
There are hollow spaces called haversian canals which contain the blood supply and innervation for the bone cells,around the haversian canals there are Concentric lamellae, which look a bit like tree rings.
The lamellae have an organic part, which is mostly collagen and an inorganic part called hydroxyapatite which is mostly calcium phosphate.
In between neighboring lamellar there ae speces lacunae, which contain bone cells called osteocytes. At first glance bone may appear inert and unchanging,but it is actually a very dynamic tissue.
In fact, spongy bone is replaced every 3 to 4 years and compact bone is replaced every 10 years, in a process called remodeling which has two steps.
Bone resorption, when specialized cells called osteoclasts break dowm bone and bone formation which is when another type of cells called osteoblasts form new bone.
Bone remodeling as whole highly dependent on serum calcium levels, which in turn are kept in them normal range by a balance betwwen parathyroid hormone or PTH, Calcitonin and vitamin D.
Parathyroid hormone is produced by the parathyroid glands in response to low serum calcium and it increase bone resorption to release calcium into the bloodstream.
On the other hand, calcium is produced by the thyroid gland in response to high serum calcium, so it opposes the action of PTH-therefore promoting bone formation and decreasing bone resorption.
Finally vitamin D promotes calcium absorption in the gut, so it increase serum calcium, promoting bone formation and decreasing bone resorption.
The balance between these regulatory factors results in a peak bone mass, usually by age 20 to 29 and this usually occurs earlier in females than in males.
Factors that determine the peak bone mass genetics and nutrition and finally strength training increasing peak bone mass as well as hormones like estrogens and androgens that inhabit bone resorption.
Now when osteoclasts break down bone faster than the osteoblasts can rebuild, it results in the lower of the bone mass and eventually in osteoporosis.
Normal cell with normal mineralization and osteomalacia where there is lack of mineralization.
So, with osteoporosis, abnormal findings include fewer trabeculae in the spongy bone and thinning of cortical bone as well as the widening of the haversian canal.
These bone changes increase the risk of fracture and they are known as fragility or pathological fractures.
Image source :Osmosis
Some bones like the vertebrae, shoulder blades and ribs consist mainly of spongy bone, so they are in great risk of fragility fractures
Factors that accelerate bone mass loss and increase the risk of osteoporosis are low estrogen levels, like after menopause and low serum calcium.
Additional factors include alcohol consumption, smoking, drugs like glucocorticoids which decrease calcium absorption from the gut through antagonism of vitamin D, and drugs like heparin and L-thyroxine.
And another factor in physical inactivity as seen in astronauts in a zero-gravity environment where they just don’t use their musculoskeletal system as hard as when they are on earth as a result bone deposition decrease due to a lack of stress while resorption increase.
There are also diseases that can cause osteoporosis like turner syndrome, hyperprolactinemia, Klinefelter syndrome, cushing syndrome and diabetes mellitus.
There is two most common types of osteoporosis are postmenopausal osteoporosis and senile osteoporosis.
In postmenopausal osteoporosis decreased estrogen levels lead to increase bone resorption. With senile osteoporosis, on the other hand it is believed that osteoblasts just gradually lose the ability to form bone while the osteoclasts keep doing their thing unabated so bone resorption usually overtakes bone formation around the 8th decade of life.
People with osteoporosis don’t usually have symptoms until a fracture occurs.The most common type of fractures are vertebral fractures and also known as compression fractures and that occurs when one or more bones in the spine weaken and shatter.
Vertebral fracture cause back pain, height loss and a hunched posture. Femoral neck fractures and distal radius fractures can also occur and they are often associated with postmenopausal osteoporosis.
Osteoporosis is usually diagnosed with a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry or Dexa scan which tests for bone density.
The test compres an individual’s bone density to that of a normal adult which yield the result or the Tscore. A T score ≤ -2.5 is diagnostic of osteoporosis.
Treatment for osteoporosis usually relies on bisphosphonate drugs like alendronate and Risendronate. If osteoporosis is really advanced, teriparatide, a recombinant parathyroid hormone can be used.
Now, even though parathyroid hormone stimulates bone bone resorption, ithas been found that intermittent injections with teriparatide activates osteoblasts more than osteoclasts, therefore increasing bone formation. Interestingly, a thiazide diluretic like hydrochlorothiazide can be used to treat osteoporosis as well.
Hydrochlorothiazide boots calcium retention in the kidney and directly Stimulates osteoblast differentiation, therefore decreasing mineral bone loss.
Finally medications like denosumab which is a monoclonal antibody that inhabits osteoclasts and raloxifene, which is a selective estrogen receptor modulator can be used for Postmenopausal osteoporosis.
You have to aware of World Osteoporosis Day to make people Conscious and help keep healthy society.
We are just human beings, helping each other is great thing in the world. make public awareness. this article just information purpose only.